Friday, February 03, 2017

"And all went to be taxed" - many other things which Jesus did

Tokyo Subway

many other things which Jesus did

There are many various Gospels in addition to the Canonical Gospels according to Mathew, Mark, and Luke as well as the Gospel of John.
Gnostic gospels
Gospel of Thomas – possibly proto-Gnostic; 1st to mid 2nd century; collection of 114 sayings attributed to Jesus, 31 of them with no parallel in the canonical gospels
Gospel of Marcion – 2nd century; potentially an edited version of the Gospel of Luke or a document which predates Luke (see: Marcionism)
Gospel of Basilides – composed in Egypt around 120 to 140 AD; thought to be a gnostic gospel harmony of the canonical gospels
Gospel of Truth (Valentinian) – mid 2nd century; departed from earlier gnostic works by admitting and defending the physicality of Christ and his resurrection.
Gospel of the Four Heavenly Realms – mid 2nd century; thought to be a gnostic cosmology, most likely in the form of a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples.
Gospel of Mary – 2nd century
Gospel of Judas – 2nd century
Greek Gospel of the Egyptians – second quarter of the 2nd century
Gospel of Philip
Pseudo-Gospel of the Twelve – A Syriac language gospel titled the Gospel of the Twelve. This work is shorter than the regular gospels and seems to be different from the lost Gospel of the Twelve.[1]
Gospel of Perfection – 4th century; an Ophite poem that is only mentioned once by a single patristic source, Epiphanius[2] and is referred to once in the 6th century Gospel of the Infancy
The Gospel of the Lots of Mary - 6th century. 
Jewish-Christian gospels
Gospel of the Hebrews
Gospel of the Nazarenes
Gospel of the Ebionites
Gospel of the Twelve
Infancy gospels
Armenian Infancy Gospel[citation needed]
Protoevangelium of James
Libellus de Nativitate Sanctae Mariae (Gospel of the Nativity of Mary)
Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew
History of Joseph the Carpenter
Infancy Gospel of Thomas
Latin Infancy Gospel (Arundel 404)[citation needed]
Syriac Infancy Gospel
Other gospels 
Gospel of the Lots of Mary (Coptic collection of 37 oracles; ca. A.D. 500)[3] 
Partially preserved gospels 
Gospel of Peter 
Fragmentary preserved gospels[α] 
Gospel of Eve – mentioned only once by Epiphanius circa 400, who preserves a single brief passage in quotation.
Gospel of Mani – 3rd century – attributed to the Persian Mani, the founder of Manichaeism.
Gospel of the Saviour (also known as the Unknown Berlin gospel) – highly fragmentary 6th-century manuscript based on a late 2nd- or early 3rd-century original. A dialogue rather than a narrative; heavily Gnostic in character in that salvation is dependent upon possessing secret knowledge.
Coptic Gospel of the Twelve – late 2nd century Coptic language work – although often equated with the Gospel of the Ebionites, it appears to be an attempt to re-tell the Gospel of John in the pattern of the Synoptics; it quotes extensively from John's Gospel. 
Reconstructed gospels[β] 
Secret Gospel of Mark – suspect: the single source mentioning it is considered by many to be a modern forgery, and it disappeared before it could be independently authenticated.
Gospel of Matthias
Lost gospels[edit]
Gospel of Cerinthus – ca. 90–120 AD – according to Epiphanius[4] this is a Jewish gospel identical to the Gospel of the Ebionites and, apparently, a truncated version of Matthew's Gospel according to the Hebrews.
Gospel of Apelles – mid-to-late 2nd century; a further edited version of Marcion's edited version of Luke.
Gospel of Valentinus[5]
Gospel of the Encratites[6]
Gospel of Andrew – mentioned by only two 5th-century sources (Augustine and Pope Innocent I) who list it as apocryphal.[7]
Gospel of Barnabas – not to be confused with the 16th century pro-Moslem work of the same name; this work is mentioned only once, in the 5th century Decree of Gelasius which lists it as apocryphal.
Gospel of Bartholomew – mentioned by only two 5th-century sources which list it as apocryphal.[8]
Gospel of Hesychius – mentioned only by Jerome and the Decree of Gelasius that list it as apocryphal.[9]
Gospel of Lucius[9] – mentioned only by Jerome and the Decree of Gelasius that list it as apocryphal.
Gospel of Merinthus[10] – mentioned only by Epiphanius; probably the Gospel of Cerinthus, and the confusion due to a scribal error.
An unknown number of other Gnostic gospels not cited by name.[11]
Gospel of the Adversary of the Law and the Prophets[12]
Memoirs of the Apostles – Lost narrative of the life of Jesus, mentioned by Justin Martyr. The passages quoted by Justin may have originated from a gospel harmony of the Synoptic Gospels composed by Justin or his school. 
Fragments of possibly unknown or lost (or existing) gospels[α] 
Papyrus Egerton 2 – late 2nd-century manuscript of possibly earlier original; contents parallel John 5:39–47, 10:31–39; Matt 1:40–45, 8:1–4, 22:15–22; Mark 1:40–45, 12:13–17; and Luke 5:12–16, 17:11–14, 20:20–26, but differ textually; also contains incomplete miracle account with no equivalent in canonical Gospels
Fayyum Fragment – a fragment of about 100 Greek letters in 3rd century script; the text seems to parallel Mark 14:26–31
Oxyrhynchus Papyri – Fragments #1, 654, & 655 appear to be fragments of Thomas; #210 is related to MT 7:17–19 and LK 6:43–44 but not identical to them; #840 contains a short vignette about Jesus and a Pharisee not found in any known gospel, the source text is probably mid 2nd century; #1224 consists of paraphrases of Mark 2:17 and Luke 9:50
Gospel of Jesus' Wife – 4th century at the earliest.
Papyrus Berolinensis 11710 – 6th-century Greek fragment, possibly from an apocrpyhal gospel or amulet based on John.
Papyrus Cairensis 10735 – 6th–7th century Greek fragment, possibly from a lost gospel, may be a homily or commentary.
Papyrus Merton 51 – Fragment from apocryphal gospel or a homily on Luke 6:7.
Strasbourg Fragment – Fragment of a lost gospel, probably related to Acts of John.
The reason why only the four Gospels were selected as authentic has not been explained by the Vatican.

Especially, no gospels written in Hebrew or Aramaic were became authentic.  And, the contents of the four Gospels, written in Greek, resemble one another.  In addition, the New Testament includes many documents believed to have been written by St. Paul.  Documents written by St. Paul or possibly by those close to Paul account for a majority of documents, other than the four Gospels, included in the New Testament.  And, Paul's mother tongue is believed to have been Greek.

Accordingly, it is reasonable to think that the four Gospels were also written under Paul's influence.  But it was impossible that those Gospels were written based on what Paul spoke or testified about  the actual mission of Christ Jesus, because Paul had never seen Christ Jesus alive and preaching in his life.

Therefore, it is likely that those four Gospels were written by translating or interpreting a source Paul had.  The source document must have been written in Hebrew or Aramaic.  And it must have a big volume so that Mark, Mathew, Luke and John could select parts of it for their writing, which caused some variations in episodes among them and even some differences in interpretation.

In deed, the last section of the Gospel of John looks like suggesting it:
Joh 21:25 And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen.

**** **** ****

Luk 2:1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed.
Luk 2:2 (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)
Luk 2:3 And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.

Wednesday, February 01, 2017

"into Capernaum after some days" - Judaists, Romans, and Christianity

A Tokyo Street

Judaists, Romans, and Christianity

The Roman Empire destroyed the temple in Jerusalem in the Jewish-Roman War fought between 66 and 73.   And then after the Bar Kokhba revolt fought between 132 and 136, Israelites or Judaists were all expelled out of Palestine.  And then the Jewish diaspora began, leading to the tragedy of Judaists in Europe in WWII of the 20th century.

Therefore Romans were critical enemies for Judaists.  Judaists never tried to invite Romans to join their religion.  But early Christians preached to Romans and invited them to join their religion.

Even Christ Jesus, a Judaist, was killed by Roman soldiers in Jerusalem.  But, as the Gospels indicate, there were no anger, hatred, and a sense of revenge on Romans in early Christians.  Rather, early Christians made full efforts to disseminate their religion in Rome and the Empire.  And, about 300 years after the death of Christ Jesus, the Roman Empire adopted Christianity as its state religion.

But how did this proceeding of  infiltration of Christianity look to the eyes of Judaists living in Rome and the Empire?

Ex-Judaists who converted to Christianity and tried to disseminate Christianity to Romans must have looked like enemies and betrayers of Judaists who must have had still hold a grudge against Romans who destroyed Jerusalem.  And eventually Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire.  It means to Judaists that Christianity became the religion of their enemies.

Later Christians in Europe blamed Judaists for having betrayed Christ Jesus and helped the Crucifixion.  But for Judaists, Romans killed so many Judaists in the Jewish-Roman Wars and the Bar Kokhba revolt.  It is Judaists that have more reasons for hating the opposite than Christians, since Christianity that had emerged among Judaists became the religion of the enemy of Judaists.

So, probably any Judaists having right sense would not accept Christianity especially after Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire.  Christianity became the religion of their enemies who had killed so many Judaists and destroyed the temple of Jerusalem.  Even today, Judaists must have this complex feelings to Christianity: Christianity betrayed Judaists and became the religion of their enemies who had killed hundreds of thousands of their ancestors and destroyed Jerusalem around the first century.

So, it must not be the matter of religious principles that Judaists even today would not accept Christianity, but it must be the historical reason that Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire that killed hundreds of thousands of Judaists and destroyed Jerusalem around the first century, forcing Judaists to suffer the diaspora.         

However, one of the critical reasons why the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the middle of the 5th century, or 200 years after the Empire adopted Christianity as the state religion must be that Christianity greatly influenced the mind sets of Romans.  The Roman Empire had been supported by a kind of militarism.  But due to penetration of Christianity, a religion of peace and love, the Empire came to be unable to maintain the strong army.  So, the Empire was forced to give up occupation of its vast territories before invasion by many and formidable foreign tribes.  

In this context, Christianity avenged the defeat of Judaists by Romans in the first century.

Therefore, if Judaists today admitted that their ancestors' enemy, the Roman Empire, collapsed due to Christianity, they might change their views and attitudes to Christianity.

Accordingly, it must be Christianity that made the Western Roman Empire collapse more than any other reasons such as a drastic climate change and great invasion by Asian tribes.

**** **** ****

Mar 2:1 And again he entered into Capernaum after some days; and it was noised that he was in the house.

"shalt call his name JESUS" - Jesus from Qumran to Egypt

Around the Tokyo Station

Jesus from Qumran to Egypt

In addition to the discovery of the Dead Sea Documents, there is another discovery of documents related to early Christianity in the 20th century: the Nag Hammadi library.
The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the "Chenoboskion Manuscripts", or as the "Gnostic Gospels"[1]) is a collection of Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. Twelve leather-bound papyrus codices buried in a sealed jar were found by a local farmer named Muhammed al-Samman.[2] The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic treatises, but they also include three works belonging to the Corpus Hermeticum and a partial translation/alteration of Plato's Republic. In his introduction to The Nag Hammadi Library in English, James Robinson suggests that these codices may have belonged to a nearby Pachomian monastery, and were buried after Saint Athanasius condemned the use of non-canonical books in his Festal Letter of 367 A.D. The discovery of these texts significantly influenced modern scholarship into early Christianity and Gnosticism.  
However, any of the Gospels according to Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John are not included in the discovered library.  It means the origins of these Gospels were not around Jerusalem since Jerusalem is close to Egypt.  These Gospels must have been translated from a Hebrew/Aramaic source or the Q-source Paul had obtained in Qumran and brought in Rome.

My theory is that those who had lived in Qumran left for Egypt after the first Jewish-Roman War.  And, as there were early Christians in Qumran, they practiced the religion in Egypt, resulting in producing an environment where Nag Hammadi documents were later made. 

Furthermore, in those who traveled from Qumran to Egypt, Jesus who had resurrected from the death on the cross and subsequently lived in Qumran must have been included.  Therefore, this miracle of the discovery of the Nag Hammadi library occurred in the 20th century together with the discovery of the Qumran documents.   In other words, Christ Jesus was originally from Qumran where Paul before his own mission visited and got a kind of Q-source document from Christ Jesus. The Dead-Sea scrolls, the Nag Hammadi library, Qumran, Christ Jesus after the Resurrection, and the Q-source document must be all linked.

**** **** ****

Luk 1:31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
Luk 1:32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:
Luk 1:33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.

Sunday, January 29, 2017

"into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John" - Mystery of Resemblance of the Four Gospels

Around Prime Minister's Office, Tokyo

Mystery of Resemblance of the Four Gospels

Why do the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John resemble one another in their contents about the mission by Christ Jesus?

As Christ Jesus preached for three years, namely 1,000 days, there must have been at least 1,000 episodes to be written in each Gospel.  But each of them contains only about 100 episodes, at most.  If these Gospels had used different sources, their contents should have differ from one another significantly.

The answer must be that there was only one source.

My theory is that it was written by Jesus after the Resurrection in Qumran in Aramaic or Hebrew.  This document was handed to Paul when he came to Qumran from Damascus.  And Paul made it secret, since there were many enemies.  But with this source of evidence of Christ Jesus, Paul could preach to Judaists and gentiles so passionately with strong confidence.

When Paul came to Rome, he allowed some of his followers, such as Luke (his close aid or personal medical doctor), and even followers of Peter (such as Mark), when Peter came to Rome, to translate the secret document into Greek, one of the then common languages in the Roman Empire.   So, according to translators, some variations came to emerge.  And, as the original author was Jesus, they called their translation the Gospel according to Mathew, the Gospel according to Mark, the Gospel according to Luke, and the Gospel according to John.  This "according to" means "translated from the original source by."

 But, it might have been Paul who chose about 100 episodes from original 1,000 episodes Jesus had written.  Or as it took three years for Paul to come to Jerusalem after his encounter of the spirit of Jesus on the road to Damascus, it is thought that Paul stayed in Qumran for three years.  Then Paul might have written the original source as he saw and heard directly words of Jesus in Qumran like Muhammad later heard words of an angel in a cave and wrote them down.

Anyway, the direct source of the Gospels must have been Paul in Rome.  And he must have the original source where the mission of Christ Jesus was written with 100 or more episodes in Aramaic or Hebrew.  And it was translated by Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John.  However, as there are some difference among them, the original source must have been larger in volume.  The translators had discretion to choose or spare some episodes or interpret episodes.

The key factors are the linkage of Jesus with Qumran, Paul's three years from Damascus to Jerusalem, and Paul's strong confidence that he knew Christ Jesus spiritually or personally.

**** **** ****

Mar 1:28 And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee.
Mar 1:29 And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.
Mar 1:30 But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her.
Mar 1:31 And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them.