Friday, July 22, 2016

"he cured many of their infirmities and plagues" - How Oceans Evaporated from Venus


How Oceans Evaporated from Venus

Roughly speaking, the distance between the sun and the earth is 150 million KM, while the distance between the sun and Venus is about 110 million KM.  The distance from the sun to Venus is 70% of the distance from the sun to the earth.

The earth and Venus were created almost in the same manner.  It means that Venus had once oceans like the earth.  But today, there are no oceans on Venus.

Surface tempx
Celsius 462 ℃  (15 ℃ for the earth)
It is similar to Earth in size and mass, and is often described as Earth's "sister" or "twin".The diameter of Venus is 12,092 km (only 650 km less than Earth's) and its mass is 81.5% of Earth's. Conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on Earth because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. The mass of the atmosphere of Venus is 96.5% carbon dioxide, with most of the remaining 3.5% being nitrogen.

There are now no traces of water on Venus.  Where did it go?

The modern theory is that billions years after the formation of Venus with oceans, the sun came to intensify its brightness and discharge more energy.  It caused an increase in amount of water vaporized.  And, it also increased the so-called electron winds around Venus, which dissolved water molecules into hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms at the high altitude and also carried away hydrogen and oxygen atoms from Venus.  As Venus lost all the water in this way, it lost oceans where CO2 could be absorbed.  So, a huge amount of CO2 were discharged to atmosphere of Venus, leading to high temperature.

June 20, 2016

‘Electric Wind’ Can Strip Earth-like Planets of Oceans, Atmospheres 
Just as every planet has a gravity field, it is believed that every planet with an atmosphere is also surrounded by a weak electric field. While the force of gravity is trying to hold the atmosphere on the planet, the electric force (the same force that sticks laundry together in a drier and pushes electricity through wires) can help to push the upper layers of the atmosphere off into space. At Venus, the much faster hydrogen escapes easily, but this electric field is so strong that it can accelerate even the heavier electrically charged component of water — oxygen ions — to speeds fast enough to escape the planet’s gravity. When water molecules rise into the upper atmosphere, sunlight breaks the water into hydrogen and oxygen ions, which are then carried away by the electric field.

“If you were unfortunate enough to be an oxygen ion in the upper atmosphere of Venus then you have won a terrible, terrible lottery,” said Collinson, “You and all your ion friends will be dragged off kicking and screaming into space by an invisible hand, and nothing can save you.”

The team discovered Venus’ electric field using the electron spectrometer, a component of the ASPERA-4 instrument, aboard the ESA Venus Express. They were monitoring electrons flowing out of the upper atmosphere when it was noticed that these electrons were not escaping at their expected speeds. The team realized that these electrons had been tugged on by Venus’ potent electric field. By measuring the change in speed, the team was able to measure the strength of the field, finding it to be much stronger than anyone had expected, and at least five times more powerful than at Earth.

“We don’t really know why it is so much stronger at Venus than Earth,” said Collinson, “but, we think it might have something to do with Venus being closer to the sun, and the ultraviolet sunlight being twice as bright. It’s a challenging thing to measure and even at Earth to date all we have are upper limits on how strong it might be.”

This theory means how lucky the earth is situated 1.4 times more distant from the sun than Venus is.

If the earth had been created in the orbit closer to that of Venus around the sun, it must have become another Venus.  The establishment of the water-filled earth looks like subject to conditions of the mass of the sun, the distance between the sun and the earth, and the mass of the earth.  Then, what is the probability that the sun and the earth meet the exact conditions that allow the earth to have oceans in a stable manner over billions of years?

Incidentally, the sun is large compared with other fixed stars.  Among 100 fixed stars around the sun, the sun is the fifth largest fixed star.  And the earth is one of about four inferior planets of the solar system.  So, the probability is less than 5% x 25% = 1.25%

Based on this 1.25%, millions of conditions should be multiplied to calculate a probability that intelligent species such as human beings are created on a planet, resulting in one-100 billionth.   It means that there is only one earth in the Milky Way, our galaxy, consisting of 200 billion fixed stars at this moment or in the past few billion years.

We, human beings, must be alone in our galaxy.

**** **** ****

Luk 7:21 And in that same hour he cured many of their infirmities and plagues, and of evil spirits; and unto many that were blind he gave sight.